On November 16, 2020, Vladimir Putin authorized his Ministry of Defense to sign an agreement with Sudan to create a permanent Russian military base in Sudan on the Red Sea, guaranteeing Russia’s first substantial military foothold in Africa since the fall of the Soviet Union. In a continent which is fast becoming the new focus of East-West rivalry for control of its abundant natural resources--chief among them oil—observers are assessing Russia’s motives. What lies behind Moscow's decision to open a naval base in Sudan? And how has Russia’s chief adversaries in the great game for oil – the United States and its allies – responded?
Currently, the US has 7,000 military personnel on rotational deployment in Africa, while France has 7,500.
Half a million people work as artisanal miners in Zimbabwe, where they face violence, theft and environmental harms.
Looking ahead to recovery from the pandemic, we fear an acceleration of evictions of Indigenous peoples from their lands.
The civilian half of Sudan's transitional government has struggled to assert or leverage its moral authority in the face of military intransigence.
After Kenya's independence, street names acted as sites for the restitution of justice.